This flag was adopted on 29 July , as a reflection of the changes brought about by the Iranian Revolution of , which resulted in the replacement of Pahlavi monarchy with an Islamic Republic , supported by a wide range of Islamist organizations  and student movements. The parliament of Iran, per the constitution, changed the flag and seal of state insofar as the Lion and Sun were replaced by the red emblem in the centre of the flag. The four crescents read from right to left; the first crescent is the letter aleph , the second crescent is the first laam ; the vertical line is the second laam , and the third and fourth crescents together form the heh. Above the central stroke is a tashdid a diacritical mark indicating gemination resembling "W". The tulip shape of the emblem as a whole memorialises those who have died for Iran and symbolises the values of patriotism and self-sacrifice, building on a legend that red tulips grow from the shed blood of martyrs. This emblem is somewhat similar to the Khanda but has no relation to Sikhism and its meaning to that religious community.
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Events of Iranian students protest at the University of Tehran during a demonstration driven by anger over economic problems, in the capital Tehran on December 30, Human Judgment and Responsibility in the Age of Technology. Changing the Terms of Engagement with Silicon Valley. Iranians participated in numerous protests across the country amid deteriorating economic conditions, perceptions of systematic government corruption, and popular frustration over lack of political and social freedoms. Security forces and the judiciary have responded to these protests with arbitrary mass arrests and serious due process violations.
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The Met's collection of Islamic art ranges in date from the seventh to the twenty-first century. Its more than 15, objects reflect the great diversity and range of the cultural traditions of Islam, with works from as far westward as Spain and Morocco and as far eastward as Central Asia and Indonesia. Comprising both sacred and secular objects, the collection reveals the mutual influence of artistic practices such as calligraphy, and the exchange of motifs such as vegetal ornament the arabesque and geometric patterning in both realms. Although the Museum acquired some seals and jewelry from Islamic countries as early as , and a number of Turkish textiles in , it received its first major group of Islamic objects in , as a bequest of Edward C. Since then, the collection has grown through gifts, bequests, and purchases, as well as through Museum-sponsored excavations at Nishapur, Iran, in —39 and in
He immediately launches an ambitious campaign to modernize the country. Among other plans, he hopes to develop a national public education system, build a national railroad system and improve health care. His son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, succeeds him on the throne. The shah opposes Mossadeq and removes him from power, but he regains power and the shah leaves Iran.