Despite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from studies reported in articles published between and , and conducted predominately in the U. Moderation effects were found for some outcomes with regard to study and exposure characteristics. Effect sizes of racism on mental health were stronger in cross-sectional compared with longitudinal data and in non-representative samples compared with representative samples. Age, sex, birthplace and education level did not moderate the effects of racism on health.
Systematic Reviews & Other Review Types
Systematic Review of the Literature: Best Practices
A total of 7 studies including patients, of whom received total neoadjuvant therapy, were selected. The total neoadjuvant therapy TNT and chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy CRT plus A groups were compared in a pooled analysis of randomized and nonrandomized trials. A random-effects model with inverse-variance method was used for the meta-analysis. OR indicates odds ratio; diamond, total OR; and marker size, weight. Baseline Characteristics of the Studies Included in the Meta-analysis. Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below.
How to Conduct a Literature Review: Start Here
There is disagreement about the level of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted a living systematic review and meta-analysis to address three questions: 1 Amongst people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2, what proportion does not experience symptoms at all during their infection? One reviewer extracted data and a second verified the extraction, with disagreement resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Risk of bias in empirical studies was assessed with an adapted checklist for case series, and the relevance and credibility of modelling studies were assessed using a published checklist.
When writing an essay or an article, it is imperative to identify its theme. The flow of the written content, the information that is presented and all other aspects are based on the topic. When writing the research paper, students often accost empirical studies and literature review.