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Underdetermination of Scientific Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
At the heart of the underdetermination of scientific theory by evidence is the simple idea that the evidence available to us at a given time may be insufficient to determine what beliefs we should hold in response to it. If watching lots of cartoons causes children to be more violent in their playground behavior, then we should barring complications expect to find a correlation between levels of cartoon viewing and violent playground behavior. But that is also what we would expect to find if children who are prone to violence tend to enjoy and seek out cartoons more than other children, or if propensities to violence and increased cartoon viewing are both caused by some third factor like general parental neglect or excessive consumption of Twinkies. So a high correlation between cartoon viewing and violent playground behavior is evidence that by itself simply underdetermines what we should believe about the causal relationship between the two. But it turns out that this simple and familiar predicament only scratches the surface of the various ways in which problems of underdetermination can arise in the course of scientific investigation. The scope of the epistemic challenge arising from underdetermination is not limited only to scientific contexts, as is perhaps most readily seen in classical skeptical attacks on our knowledge more generally.
Duhem-quine thesis stanford
The Duhem—Quine thesis , also called the Duhem—Quine problem , after Pierre Duhem and Willard Van Orman Quine , is that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation, because an empirical test of the hypothesis requires one or more background assumptions also called auxiliary assumptions or auxiliary hypotheses. In recent decades the set of associated assumptions supporting a thesis sometimes is called a bundle of hypotheses. The Duhem—Quine thesis argues that no scientific hypothesis is by itself capable of making predictions.
This means the gene provides the stanford , instructions to build a polypeptide but it does not build it directly; it needs RNA as a bridge. Quine Duhem Thesis Stanford? In polypeptides and Mean , proteins the duhem , monomer bases are the estimator resume , 20 amino acids. Since the lance writing , information is encoded in two different chemical languages, transcription and duhem thesis stanford , translation are used to get from one language to the other. Duhem Thesis?